Toby Parcel


Department of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University

NLS user since 1987

  • Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan 1994 Parents' Jobs and Children's Lives. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
  • Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan 1990 "Maternal working conditions and child verbal facility: Studying the intergenerational transmission of inequality from mothers to young children." Social Psychology Quarterly 53:132 147.
  • Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan1993 "Family social capital and children's behavior problems." Social Psychology Quarterly 56:120-135.
  • Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan 1994 "Early parental work, family social capital and early childhood outcomes." American Journal of Sociology 99:972-1009.
  • Parcel, Toby L. and Mikaela J. Dufur 2001 "Capital at home and at school: Effects on student achievement." Social Forces 79:881-912.
  • Parcel, Toby L., Lori Ann Campbell and Wenxuan Zhong. 2012 “Children’s behavior problems in Great Britain and the United States.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 53: 165-182.
What I learned from NLS data

The NLSY79 Child-Mother data set has been an essential resource for learning more about the intergenerational effects of families on children. We learned that the effects of early maternal work on young children are typically not harmful. We learned that mothers are instrumental in creating strong home environments for young children, and that these home environments are critical to promoting both social adjustment and academic success. We have also learned that social capital at home is more important than social capital at school in promoting child cognition and child social adjustment.

Why I chose NLS data

The longitudinal nature of the NLSY79 was essential to studying family effects on children. The representative national sample was essential to moving studies of family effects beyond the small, localized and class-specific studies produced earlier. And the innovation of including school characteristics helped us to understand more about the relative importance of family and school in promoting child well-being.