Paula England


Department of Sociology, New York University

NLS user since 1978

  • Paula England. 1982. "The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation." Journal of Human Resources 17, 3 (Summer): 358-70.
  • Paula England, George Farkas, Barbara Kilbourne, and Thomas Dou. 1988. "Explaining Occupational Sex Segregation and Wages: Findings from a Model with Fixed Effects." American Sociological Review 53, 4: 544-558
  • Barbara Kilbourne, Paula England, George Farkas, Kurt Beron, and Dorothea Weir. 1994. "Returns to Skills, Compensating Differentials, and Gender Bias: Effects of Occupational Characteristics on the Wages of White Women and Men." American Journal of Sociology 100:689-719
  • Paula England, Lori Reid, and Barbara Stanek Kilbourne.1996. “The Effect of the Sex Composition of Jobs on Starting Wages in an Organization: Findings from the NLSY.” Demography 33,4: 511-521.
  • Michelle J. Budig and Paula England. 2001. “The Wage Penalty for Motherhood.” American Sociological Review 66:204-225.
  • Paula England, Jonathan Bearak, Michelle Budig, Melissa Hodges. 2015. "How the Motherhood Penalty Varies by Wage, Cognitive Skill, and Race: A Reassessment." Unpublished as of 4-2015, available from authors.
What I learned from NLS data

I've learned about factors influencing gender and parenthood-status differences in pay.

Why I chose NLS data

Its panel nature allowed me to use fixed-effects models.